For better or worse, the gig economy is here to stay. It offers flexible hours, and participants have the option to choose their clients and projects, often enjoying the benefits of working remotely. However, freelancers and other gig workers miss out on the benefits offered by more traditional employment, says Forbes in the recent article “What Gig Workers Should Know About Self-Directed Retirement Accounts.” They are completely responsible for their own retirement savings, health care expenses and any other forms of long-term savings.
How can a freelancer build a nest egg? It sounds simple. Establish a retirement account early on and start contributing, no matter what the amount. There is no lack of retirement plans available today for self-employed professionals and part-time workers, including traditional IRAs, self-employed 401(k) plans, and simplified employee pension IRAs, among others. Having the income and the discipline to do this is the challenge.
Freelancers may set up individual retirement accounts, contributing up to $6,000 annually. For those who are 50 and over, there’s an additional catch-up contribution of $1,000 permitted. A freelancer can go with a traditional IRA or a Roth IRA.
A plan participant may contribute up to a quarter of their income, up to $56,000.
Self-employed 401(k) or solo 401(k)
This plan offers the most flexibility for retirement contributions. The person can contribute up to $62,000 each year. These plans also have a lower maintenance cost and investment options that go beyond the stock market, since there is no requirement that the plan have a custodian. The accounts can include real estate property, commercial property, private lending, tax liens or multifamily syndication.
The Good and the Bad of Self-Directed Retirement Plans
Self-directed retirement accounts allow participants to invest in alternative investments. That can be a good thing; if a self-employed professional wanted to leverage their industry experience to make long-term limited period investments, for example. For a self-directed IRA, the plan holder does need a custodian to act as a trustee of the account. That could be a bank, brokerage firm, insured credit union or a legal entity approved by the IRS. The custodian is not authorized to provide investment advice to plan participants.
The self-directed solo 401(k) is structured with a 401(k) trust, used as a vehicle to hold the assets. The account holder is the trustee and has total control over how the assets are used. Solo 401(k) plans allow post-tax Roth contributions to be made to a separate designated Roth account under the same plan. That lets investments grow tax-free, as well as tax-free qualified distributions.
However, with all this freedom comes risk. If investments don’t work out, there’s no safety net. There are also many regulations around these self-directed accounts. Some transactions are prohibited and there are rules regarding withdrawals and participant loans.